Understanding Dry Eye Syndrome (DES)

DID YOU KNOW the longer you look at digital devices, the more eye strain you experience, as one blinks a lot less when looking at a screen, which in turn dries out our eyes causing what is medical referred to as dry eye syndrome (DES) also known as dry eye disease (DED)?

DES is a condition in which there is an imbalance in the quantity and/or quality of tears. Tears are composed of oil, mucus and water each produced in different tissues around the eye and with specific function. Any imbalance in these components affects the tear film function leading to DES.

Other Causes of Dry Eyes

Dry eyes can also be caused by several other factors including:

  1. Ageing – tear production decreases with age
  2. Trauma – surgery and ocular surface injury can cause DES
  3. Diseases – ocular surface diseases, drug reactions, lacrimal gland disease, thyroid eye disease, lid margin disease and auto immune diseases
  4. Miscellaneous – contact lens and some oral medications can cause or aggravate DES

Digital eye strain is typically caused by the use of a digital screen for two or more hours per day. Its symptoms are a combination of some or all of the signs below:

  • Eye strain
  • Redness and dryness due to decreased blinking
  • Blurry vision due to screen glare
  • Headache from prolonged eye strain
  • Neck, shoulder and/or back pain caused by poor posture and sub-optimal screen position
  1. General measures – purposeful blinking especially when using a computer for long periods and resting of tired eyes can reduce discomfort. Avoid air conditioned spaces, fans and smoky or dusty spaces as they aggravate the symptoms.
  2. Ocular lubricants – use of drops, ointments and gels to lubricate the eyes, giving them temporary relief.
  3. Blocking tear drainage – for severe DES, the drainage of tears can be prevented temporarily or permanently with punctal plugs or through surgery.
  4. Medications – topical anti-inflammatory medication can be used in DES.

Remember, an eye visit at least once a year keeps your eye health in check. Happy Workplace Eye Wellness Month!

Do you have a query related to Dry Eye Syndrome or any other eye-related query? Please feel free to contact us via info@cityeyehospital.or.ke

If you have an eye condition or are in need of a routine eye exam, talk to us via +254 (0) 707 777 707 or visit us at City Eye Hospital, Ngong Rd, Opposite Traffic Police Station, Nairobi, Kenya. 


What is low vision?

Low vision aids

Did you know that FEBRUARY is Age-related Macular Degeneration (AMD) and Low Vision Awareness month? In our previous post, we touched on what you need to know the world of AMD. In this post, we touch on all you need to know about Low Vision.

Low Vision is a condition where one has permanently-reduced vision that cannot be corrected or improved through standard refraction and ophthalmic and medical intervention, including regular glasses, contact lenses, medicine or surgery and where one’s ability to do normal tasks like reading is limited, though this varies from person to person.

Persons with Low Vision suffer visual impairment and their vision is less than 6/18 with a constricted visual field of less than 10 degrees from a point of fixation in the better eye. However, one has functional vision which can be utilised through use of Low Vision aids, environmental modification/adaptation and rehabilitation.

To Note:

(1) It is important to recognize the anger and frustration that you may feel after knowing you cannot regain your lost vision. It is advisable to get professional consultation with guidance and counselling from a Low Vision professional, such as a Low Vision therapist or rehabilitation officer.

(2) Having “Low Vision” is not the same as being “blind.” For example, your doctor may tell you that you have a blind or blank spot in the center of your vision that limits your ability to read or see people’s faces. Nevertheless, you can still get around using your side (or peripheral) vision.

Types of Low Vision
  • Loss of Central Vision: Persons with this type of Low Vision have a blur or blind spot, but a person’s side (peripheral) vision remains. This makes it difficult to read, recognise faces and distinguish most details in the distance. With side vision intact, however, mobility is usually unaffected.
  • Loss of Peripheral (Side) Vision:Persons who lose their peripheral vision cannot distinguish anything in one side or both sides of the eye or anything directly above and/or below eye level. Central vision remains intact, though, making it possible to see directly ahead. Typically, loss of peripheral vision affects mobility. If it is severe, it can slow reading speed because the person can only see a few words at a time.
  • Blurred Vision:With blurred vision, both near and far vision is out of focus, even with the best possible correction with eyeglasses.
  • Generalized Haze: People with generalised haze have the sensation of a film or glare that may extend over the entire viewing field.
  • Extreme Light Sensitivity: Extreme light sensitivity occurs when standard levels of light overwhelm a person’s visual system, producing a washed-out image and/or a glare. People with extreme light sensitivity may suffer pain or discomfort from relatively normal levels of light.
  • Night Blindness: People with night blindness cannot see outside at night under starlight or moonlight or in dimly lighted interior areas, such as movie theaters or restaurants.
Causes of Low Vision

Though Low Vision can occur at any age, normal aging of the eye does not lead to Low Vision. Certain conditions/occurrences have been known to cause Low Vision, such as:

Low Vision Aids

Losing vision does not mean giving up on your activities, but it does mean applying new ways of doing them. There are many Low Vision aids and devices to help you with your daily activities. Talk with your ophthalmologist/Low Vision therapist about solutions for your specific needs.

Below we outline good examples of Low Vision aids that can be of help to persons with Low Vision.

Optical Low Vision aids

These use magnifying lenses to make objects look larger and easier to see. Examples include:

  1. Magnifying spectacles: These are the magnifiers that are worn like eyeglasses to keep your hands free. They can be used for reading, threading a needle or doing other close-up tasks.
  2. Stand magnifiers: These magnifiers rest above the object you are looking at. This helps to keep the lens at a proper distance. That they are mounted on a stand is also quite helpful to people who have tremor or arthritis. Some stand magnifiers have built-in lights.
  3. Hand magnifiers: There are magnifiers designed to help with different amounts of vision.
  4. Video magnifiers: These electronic devices make printed pages, pictures or other small objects look bigger. You often can adjust them to meet your special vision needs. For instance, with some magnifiers you can add contrast to make printed words darker.
Non-optical Low Vision devices

These are designed to help with everyday tasks. Examples include:

  1. Audio books and electronic books: With audio books, you can listen to text that is read aloud while electronic books increase word size and contrast of texts.
  2. Smart phones and tablets: Theselet you change word size, adjust lighting and use voice commands. There also are many apps to choose from, such as programs that read material aloud, magnify or illuminate.
  3. Computers: There are computersthat can read aloud or magnify what is on the screen.
  4. Talking items:Watches, timers, blood pressure cuffs, and blood sugar machines are some of the talking items that can be of aid to persons with Low Vision.
  5. Large-print:Books, newspapers, magazines, playing cards and bank cheques with big-sized fonts.
  6. Telephones, thermostats, watches and remote controls:Large-sized numbers and high contrast colours on these devices are useful to persons with Low Vision.

Remember, you should have an eye exam regularly, at the very least once a year. Take advantage of this month being an AMD and Low Vision awareness month to have your eye exam.

Do you have any queries regarding Low Vision or any other query relating to eye health? Please place your query on the comment section below or contact us via: info@cityeyehospital.or.ke.

If you need medical attention, contact us via +254 (0) 707 777 707 or visit us at City Eye Hospital, Ngong Rd, Opposite Traffic Police Station, Nairobi, Kenya.

Age-related Macular Degeneration

vision-testAge-related macular degeneration (AMD) is a cause of visual impairment in the elderly. It is more common in light-skinned populations than in Africans.

The eye ailment affects the part of the eye called the macula, which is the central part of the retina where light is focused by the cornea and lens. It is needed for fine visual tasks such as reading, writing, threading a needle, etc.

Types of AMD

There are two types of AMD:

  1. Dry macular degeneration
  2. Wet macular degeneration

Dry Macular Degeneration 

This is the most common type. It develops very slowly and causes gradual reduction in central vision. It may take a long time before it goes to the final stage. Dry AMD does not affect side vision hence it does not lead to total blindness. About 15% of dry AMD develops to the wet form of AMD.

To note: Dry Macular Degeneration has no treatment.

Wet Macular Degeneration

In wet AMD, abnormal blood vessels grow under the retina. These leak blood and fluid, leading to macula swelling and a rapid drop in vision.

Causes of AMD

Exactly what triggers the processes that lead to AMD is unclear, but a number of things are known to increase the risk factors of developing it, namely:

  1. Age. The older a person gets, the more likely they are to develop at least some degree of AMD.
  2. Family history. Cases of AMD have been known to run in families. If your parents or siblings develop AMD, it is thought that your risk of getting it is increased.
  3. Smoking. This is a significant risk factor for AMD. In general, people who smoke are up to four times more likely to develop AMD than those who have never smoked.
  4. Gender. Women are more likely to develop AMD than men, but this could simply be because women tend to live longer than men.
  5. Ethnicity. Studies have found that rates of AMD are highest in white and Chinese people, and lower in black people.
  6. Other associated conditions. A number of other factors that may increase your risk of developing AMD have also been identified, but a link with the condition has not yet been proven. These include alcohol consumption, obesity, high blood pressure, and heart disease.
  1. Straight lines start to appear distorted, or the centre of vision becomes distorted
  2. Dark, blurry areas or whiteout appears in the centre of vision
  3. Diminished or changed colour perception
  4. Deterioration in reading vision
  • Having routine eye exams by an ophthalmologist helps prevent vision loss due to AMD.

Drugs such as Lucentis, Avastin and Eylea are injected in the eye to stop the growth of the abnormal blood vessels. One usually requires monthly injections. The condition can recur, which requires additional injections. Sometimes it heals with scarring, leading to permanent visual loss.

Benefits of treatment
  1. Improves vision
  2. Prevents retinal detachment
  • Is AMD hereditary? No, it is not.
  • Is AMD preventable? There is nothing one can do to prevent AMD.

Do you have any queries regarding AMD or any other query relating to eye health? Please place your query on the comment section below or contact us via: info@cityeyehospital.or.ke.

If you need medical attention, contact us via +254 (0) 707 777 707 or visit us at City Eye Hospital, Ngong Rd, Opposite Traffic Police Station, Nairobi, Kenya.

What is a black eye?

A black often results from injury to the face or the head, and is caused when blood and other fluids collect in the space around the eye. Swelling and dark discoloration results in a “black eye”.

Despite the name, “black eye,” the eye itself is not usually injured. The tissues around the eye may be significantly discolored and swollen without any injury to the eye itself and should heal on its own in a few days. However, it is prudent to see an ophthalmologist immediately to rule out any severe eye injuries.

The most common cause of a black eye is a blow to the eye or nose.


Signs of a non-threatening black eye include:

  • Swelling and discoloration around the eye
  • Mild pain around the eye
  • Temporary blurred vision
  • Difficulty in fully opening your eye

Signs of a more serious eye injury include:

  • Double vision
  • Loss of sight and/or fuzzy vision could occur
  • Inability to move the eye or large swelling around the eye
  • Blood on the surface of the eye itself or cuts on the eye itself
  • Persistent headache or migraine

Remember: A black eye can also be caused by complications such as traumatic iritis and uveitis, hyphema, glaucoma orbital floor fracture and retinal detachment.


Home remedies for black eye include rest and applying ice or frozen peas to the affected areas to decrease swelling and pain.

To avoid a black eye, wear appropriate protective gear for any athletic or work-related activity, don’t leave objects on the stairs, since this can easily result in a fall and eye injury, ensure rugs, which can be a trip hazard, lie flat and are wrinkle-free.

Do you have any queries regarding black eyes or any other eye condition? Please place your query on the comment section below or contact us via: info@cityeyehospital.or.ke.

If you need medical attention, contact us via +254 (0) 707 777 707 or visit us at City Eye Hospital, Ngong Rd, Opposite Traffic Police Station, Nairobi, Kenya.

What is corneal abrasion?

A corneal abrasion (a scratched cornea) is one of the most common eye injuries. So what are the causes, symptoms and treatment of corneal abrasion?


Many people assume corneal abrasions are only caused by a noticeable injury like getting poked in the eye by a sharp object, such as a pencil. However, sand, dust and other small particles can also cause a corneal abrasion, especially if you rub your eyes.

Other causes include:

  • Chemicals entering your eye
  • Wearing poor-fitting or dirty contact lenses
  • Certain types of eye infection
  • Undergoing surgery without proper eye protection
  • Discomfort that may entail feeling like you have sand or grit in your eye
  • Red eyes
  • Tearing
  • Hypersensitivity to light
  • Blurred vision
  • Feeling pain when you open or close your eye

If you feel like there’s something in your eye, you’re going to want to rub it. Don’t. It is through the rubbing that you get a scratch. Do this instead:

  • Blink several times
  • Pull your upper eyelid over the lower eyelid
  • Gently rinse your eye with clean water

Remember, you should not try to remove anything that is stuck on your cornea. In case of such an occurrence, visit an eye doctor immediately.


The treatment for a corneal abrasion depends on the severity of the wound and the cause. It may entail your doctor prescribing antibiotic eye drops or ointment to keep your eye from getting infected. The doctor may also patch your affected eye to keep light from bothering it.

A minor scratch should heal on its own in 1–3 days. More severe abrasions may take longer.

While your eye heals:

  • Do not rub it
  • Do not wear contact lenses until your eye doctor says it is safe to do so
  • Wear sunglasses to ease discomfort caused by sunlight.

Do you have any further queries on corneal abrasion or any other eye condition or ailment? Please place your query on the comment section below or contact us via: info@cityeyehospital.or.ke.

If you need medical attention, contact us via +254 (0) 707 777 707 or visit us at City Eye Hospital, Ngong Rd, Opposite Traffic Police Station, Nairobi, Kenya.

Eyelid Twitching: Symptoms, Causes and Treatment

You must have had one of those involuntary eyelid twitches that usually come and go on their own but which can be rather annoying when they keep happening days on end.

So what exactly are the twitches all about? What causes them and can they necessitate treatment?


Eyelid twitching normally occurs in the upper eyelid, though they can occur in the lower eyelid too.

For most people, the twitches are mild and feel like a gentle tug on the eyelid. Others experience a spasm strong enough that it forces you to close your eyelid completely. Yet others feel nothing much, as the twitches don’t have any noticeable signs.

Episodes of eyelid twitching—also known as blepharospasm—are unpredictable. The spasms typically occur every few seconds for a minute or two, but they can last anywhere from a few seconds to a few minutes to even even a few months depending on the cause of the twitch.

Most of the time, these twitches are painless and harmless and are just your body telling you that you have watched too much television or need a break from staring at your computer.


The obvious symptom is of course uncontrolled twitching of the eyelid. Other common symptoms are:

  • Squinting
  • Continuous blinking
  • Increased twitching while performing eye-intensive tasks such as stitching or reading.

Eyelid twitching may occur without any identifiable cause and because they are rarely a sign of a serious problem, the cause is not usually investigated. Nevertheless, eyelid twitches may be caused or made worse by:

  • Stress
  • Fatigue and lack of sleep
  • Eye-straining tasks, such as prolonged computer use, long episodes of sewing, extended television viewing, etc.
  • Corneal irritation or injury
  • Side effects of medication
  • High consumption of alcohol and caffeine, which make the eyes less hydrated, resulting in muscle spasms (eye twitches)

To Note: During pregnancy, it is common to undergo stress, fatigue and sleeplessness. These reasons might trigger eyelid twitching. Also, eye spasm during pregnancy can also be a result of deficiency in vitamins and minerals in the body, like potassium, calcium magnesium, vitamin D etc.

  • Schedule breaks: Be sure to get plenty of breaks away from your computer or television to help rest your eyes.
  • Rest and Relaxation: Simple rest and relaxation, including a good night’s sleep, often resolves most minor cases of eyelid twitching.
  • Massage: Appling warm compresses to the twitching eye and gently massage the eyelid with your fingers is a good remedy for an eyelid twitch.
  • Diet and exercise: A healthy diet and exercise will do you some good and help you reduce and even eliminate eyelid twitching.
  • Reduce or eliminate alcohol and caffeine: You may want to consider reducing or eliminating caffeine and or alcohol from your diet.
  • Botulinum (Botox) injections: This is sometimes used to treat eyelid twitching. Botox may ease severe spasms for a few months. However, as the effects of the injection wear off, you may need further injections.

To Note: The treatment that works varies depending on the person. If an underlying health condition is the cause, then treating the underlying condition is the way to relieve the twitching. 

When is an eyelid twitch a medical emergency?

Eyelid twitches are rarely serious enough to require emergency medical treatment. However, chronic eyelid spasms may be a symptom of a more serious brain or nervous system disorder, thus you may need to see your doctor if you’re experiencing this. You may need to see you doctor too if:

  • Your eye is red, swollen or has an unusual discharge.
  • Your upper eyelid is drooping.
  • Your eyelid completely closes each time your eyelids twitch.
  • The twitching continues for several weeks and begins to affect other parts of your face.

Do you have any queries regarding eyelid twitching or any other eye condition? Please place your query on the comment section below or contact us via: info@cityeyehospital.or.ke.

If you need medical attention, contact us via +254 (0) 707 777 707 or visit us at City Eye Hospital, Ngong Rd, Opposite Traffic Police Station, Nairobi, Kenya.

Stye symptoms and treatment

You must have come across someone with a stye mostly at school. Some students had sties routinely through school. Some would have 8-10 sties in a year.

A stye is an infection that causes a tender red lump on or along the edge of an eyelid. They may be painful or annoying, but they are rarely serious. Most go away on their own without treatment. Sometimes sties can form inside your eyelid as well.

Styes typically don’t cause vision problems.

What are the symptoms?

A stye usually starts as a red bump that looks like a pimple along the edge of the eyelid. The first signs are pain, redness, swelling and tenderness.

As the stye grows, the eyelid becomes swollen and painful. The eye may also water. Most styes swell for about three days before they break open and drain. Usually, they heal in about a week.

There are other eye issues that can accompany styes, such as frequent watering in the affected eye, increased light sensitivity and a feeling like something is in your eye (eye doctors call this a “foreign body sensation”).

How do you treat a stye?

Most times home remedies is all that is needed.

  • Apply warm, wet compresses for 5 to 10 minutes, 3 to 4 times a day. This usually helps the area heal faster. It may also help open a blocked pore so that it can drain and start to heal.
  • Let the stye open on its own. Don’t squeeze or open it.
  • Don’t wear eye makeup or contact lenses until the area has healed.

If a stye is not getting better with home treatment, see an ophthalmologist immediately. You may need a prescription for antibiotic eye ointment or eye drops.

Also, occasionally, a stye can cause conjunctivitis or inflammation of the eye covering. If an infection develops, urgent treatment will be needed as the infection can spread to surrounding tissue. In the majority of cases, though, a stye does not cause any problems.

How can you prevent styes?

  • Don’t rub your eyes. Continuous rubbing of the eyes can irritate your eyes and let in bacteria. If you need to touch your eyes, wash your hands first.
  • Protect your eyes from dust and air pollution when you can. For example, wear safety glasses when you do dusty chores like raking or mowing the lawn.
  • Replace eye makeup, especially mascara, at least every six months. Bacteria can grow in makeup.
  • Treat any inflammation or infection of the eyelid promptly.

Note: Usually, styes do not come back but some people seem to be more prone to them than others. Good hygiene, especially eye and hand hygiene can reduce the risk of them recurring.

If you have any queries regarding stye or any other eye condition, place your query on the comment section below or contact us via: info@cityeyehospital.or.ke.

If you need medical attention, contact us via +254 (0) 707 777 707 or visit us at City Eye Hospital, Ngong Rd, Opposite Traffic Police Station, Nairobi, Kenya.

Watering Eyes (Epiphora): Causes and Treatment

Watering eyes can develop at any age. It is, however, more common among young babies and adults over the age of 60 years. The condition may present symptoms in just one or both eyes.


Watering eyes occur if too many tears are produced or if they cannot drain away properly. Tearing is a normal function of the eye. Excessive tearing, or teary eyes that are not from normal crying, can be a sign of an underlying health condition or disease.

Tears, which are made up of water, oil and antibodies, are produced by the lacrimal gland. They drain from the eye through the tear ducts (lacrimal ducts).

If the tear ducts become blocked, tears can well up in the eye resulting in watering eyes.

Tear ducts can become blocked due to infection and inflammation, both of which can also lead to excessive tear production. Irritated eyes may produce more tears than normal as the body tries to rinse the irritant away.

The following irritants can cause the over-production of tears:

  • Some chemicals fumes
  • Sliced onions
  • Inflammation of the edges of the eyelids (a condition known as blepharitis)
  • Blocked or narrowed tear ducts
  • Infective or allergic conjunctivitis (conjunctivitis is the infection or swelling of the outer membrane of the eyeball)
  • An injury to the eye, including a scratch
  • A tiny pebble or piece of dirt entering the eye
  • Trichiasis: Inward-growing eyelashes, often caused by marginal entropion, which is where the eyelid turns in at the edges towards the eye
  • Ectropion: The lower eyelid sagging away from the eye, making it difficult for tears to reach the drainage ducts

The kind of treatment a patient gets depends on the severity of the watery eyes and its cause. In mild cases, an eye doctor may recommend just watchful waiting, i.e., doing nothing and monitoring the patient’s progress.

In cases involving an inward-growing eyelash or some foreign object that is lodged in the eye, the eye doctor can remove the eyelash or foreign object without the patient having to go to theatre.

Other treatment options

Surgery: In case of blocked or narrowed tear ducts, surgery to create a new channel from the tear sac to the inside of the nose may be necessary to allow the tears to bypass the blocked part of the tear duct. This surgical procedure is known DCR (dacryocystorhinostomy).

In case of ectropion, the patient may need to undergo surgery in which the tendon that holds the outer eyelid in place is tightened.

Probing: If the drainage channels on the inside of the eye (canaliculi) are narrowed, but not entirely blocked, the doctor may use an ophthalmology instrument known as a probe to make them wider. An operation may be required if the canaliculi are completely blocked. 

If you have any queries regarding watering eyes or any other eye condition, place your query on the comment section below or contact us via: info@cityeyehospital.or.ke.

If you need medical attention, contact us via +254 (0) 707 777 707 or visit us at City Eye Hospital, Ngong Rd, Opposite Traffic Police Station, Nairobi, Kenya.

Diabetes and your vision

Did you know that on November 14 every year the world marks World Diabetes day?

Did you also know that persons with diabetes are likely to develop diabetic eye disease?

Below, we touch on nine facts you need to know about diabetic eye disease.

  1. Diabetic eye disease comprises a group of eye conditions that affect people with diabetes. These conditions include diabetic retinopathy, diabetic macular edema (DME), cataract, and glaucoma.
  2. All forms of diabetic eye disease have the potential to cause severe vision loss and blindness.
  3. Diabetic retinopathy involves changes to retinal blood vessels that can cause them to bleed or leak fluid, distorting vision.
  4. Diabetic retinopathy is the most common cause of vision loss among people with diabetes and a leading cause of blindness among working-age adults.
  5. DME is a consequence of diabetic retinopathy that causes swelling in the area of the retina called the macula.
  6. Controlling diabetes—by taking medications as prescribed, staying physically active, and maintaining a healthy diet—can prevent or delay vision loss.
  7. Because diabetic retinopathy often goes unnoticed until vision loss occurs, people with diabetes should get a comprehensive dilated eye exam at least once a year.
  8. Early detection, timely treatment, and appropriate follow-up care of diabetic eye disease can protect against vision loss.
  9. Diabetic retinopathy can be treated with several therapies, used alone or in combination.

Mark World Diabetes Day

If you haven’t had your annual eye checkup yet, then take this opportunity to mark the World Diabetes Day by getting that eye checkup during the month of November.

Need a comprehensive eye exam?

We at City Eye Hospital are dedicated to providing comprehensive eye care services that prevent as well as ensure early detection and treatment of eye problems caused by diabetes.

We’re located along Ngong Road, opp. Traffic Police, Nairobi, Kenya. Visit us any day from Monday to Friday.

You can also talk to us on: +254 (0)707-777-707


Colour Blindness

Have you ever tried to point out something to someone with colour as the main point of reference and they couldn’t spot it? Oh well, they just be suffering from colour blindness.

Colour blindness can be frustrating and humiliating, especially for school going children and young adults.

Adults are able to develop hard skin and see the funny side of it when they misjudge furniture or the colour of the dress of their spouse, but there are certain situations that correct interpretation of colours can be critical: prime example being traffic lights.

So exactly what is this eye condition that is commonly talked about?


Colour blindness is the inability to tell apart the colours red, blue, green or a mixture of the three as a result of the absence of colour-sensitive pigment in the cone cells of the retina—the nerve layer at the back of the eye.


  • Being able to see some colours and not others—this is especially true if you can’t tell between reds and greens but you can see blue and yellow easily;
  • Inability to see shades or tones of the same colour;
  • Seeing only black, white and grey;
  • Sensitivity to bright colours or lights;
  • Reading issues with coloured pages or worksheets produced in colour;
  • Inability to see any colour.


The key cause of colour blindness is genetics, i.e., the condition is inherited at birth. Chronic eye diseases affecting the optic nerve and exposure to industrial or environmental chemicals have also been known to cause colour blindness.


Colour blindness is diagnosed by taking ishihara plates tests: All plates show a big circle consisting of many little colourful circles, which differ in colour and brightness, making it tough for a colour blind person to see the numbers or traces on the plates.


There is no way to prevent colour blindness.

There is no treatment/cure for hereditary colour vision deficiency. However, it is possible for you to learn to recognize colour by other means, e.g., telling colours apart by brightness or perception.

Quick facts about colour blindness

  • Police officers, firefighters and airplane pilots are required to have normal colour vision.
  • A whooping 99% of all colour blind people are not really colour blind but colour deficient, i.e., they can see most colours but have a difficulty differentiating between particular shades of reds and greens.
  • People who are totally colour blind—a condition known as achromatopsia or monochromacy can only see things as black and white or shades of grey.
  • Colour blindness is more prevelant among males than females.

If you have any queries regarding colour blindness or any other eye condition, place your query on the comment section below or contact us via: info@cityeyehospital.or.ke.

If you need medical attention, contact us via +254 (0) 707 777 707 or visit us at City Eye Hospital, Ngong Rd, Opposite Traffic Police Station, Nairobi, Kenya.